Resources

Here is a list of important references for each major research stream at the Centre. These references include seminal articles, as well as recent articles from Centre affiliates. Links to each article is provided where allowed.

Personal Values

Theory, measurement and broad patterns.

Selected Foundation papers

Schwartz, S. H. (1992). Universals in the content and structure of values: Theory and empirical tests in 20 countries.  In M. Zanna (Ed.), Advances in experimental social psychology (Vol. 25) (pp. 1-65). New York: Academic Press. doi.org/10.1016/S0065-2601(08)60281-6

Schwartz, S.H. (1996). Value priorities and behavior: Applying a theory of integrated value systems. In C. Seligman, J.M. Olson, & M.P. Zanna (Eds.), The Psychology of Values: The Ontario Symposium, Vol. 8 (pp.1-24). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Schwartz, S.H., Verkasalo, M., Antonovsky, A., & Sagiv, L. (1997). Value priorities and social desirability: Much substance, some style. British Journal of Social Psychology, 36, 3-18.

Schwartz, S. H., & Bardi, A. (2001). Value hierarchies across cultures: Taking a similarities perspective. Journal of Cross Cultural Psychology, 32, 268-290. doi: 10.1177/0022022101032003002

Roccas, S., Sagiv, L., Schwartz, S. H., & Knafo, A. (2002). The big five personality factors and personal values. Personality and social psychology bulletin28(6), 789-801.

Bardi, A., & Schwartz, S. H. (2003). Values and behavior: Strength and structure of relations. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, ­29, 1207-1220. doi:10.1177/0146167203254602

Bardi, A., Lee, J. A., Hofmann-Towfigh, N., & Soutar, G. (2009). The structure of intraindividual value change. Journal of personality and social psychology97(5), 913.

Bardi, A., & Goodwin, R. (2011). The dual route to value change: Individual processes and cultural moderators. Journal of cross-cultural psychology42(2), 271-287.

Fischer, R., & Boer, D. (2015). Motivational Basis of Personality Traits: A Meta‐Analysis of Value‐Personality Correlations. Journal of personality83(5), 491-510.

Parks-Leduc, L., Feldman, G., & Bardi, A. (2015). Personality traits and personal values: A meta-analysis. Personality and Social Psychology Review19(1), 3-29.

Selected recent theoretical developments

Maio, G. R. (2010). Mental representations of social values. Advances in experimental social psychology42, 1-43.

Maio, G. R. (2016). The psychology of human values. Psychology Press.

Schwartz, S. H., Cieciuch, J., Vecchione, M., Davidov, E., Fischer, R., Beierlein, C., … & Dirilen-Gumus, O. (2012). Refining the theory of basic individual values. Journal of personality and social psychology103(4), 663.

Borg, I., Bardi, A., & Schwartz, S. H. (2017). Does the value circle exist within persons or only across persons? Journal of Personality, 85, 151-162. doi:10.1111/jopy.12228

Schwartz, S. H. (2015). Basic individual values: Sources and consequences. In D. Sander and T. Brosch (Eds.), Handbook of value (pp.63-84)Oxford: UK, Oxford University Press. 

Schwartz, S. H. (2017). The refined theory of basic values. In S. Roccas & L. Sagiv (Eds.), Values and behavior: Taking a cross-cultural perspective (pp. 51-72). Cham, Switzerland: Springer International Publishing.

Lee, J. A., Sneddon, J. N., Daly, T. M., Schwartz, S. H., Soutar, G. N., & Louviere, J. J. (2017). Testing and Extending Schwartz Refined Value Theory Using a Best–Worst Scaling Approach. Assessment, 1073191116683799.

Selected Values Development papers

Döring, A. K., Daniel, E., & Knafo‐Noam, A. (2016). Introduction to the special section Value development from middle childhood to early adulthood—new insights from longitudinal and genetically informed research. Social Development25(3), 471-481. [Also, see other articles within this special issue]

Robinson, O. C. (2013). Values and adult age: Findings from two cohorts of the European Social Survey. European Journal of Ageing10(1), 11-23.

Selected Values Measurement papers

Schwartz Values Survey (SVS): Schwartz, S. H., & Boehnke, K. (2004). Evaluating the structure of human values with confirmatory factor analysis. Journal of Research in Personality, 38, 230-255.

Portrait Values Questionnaire (PVQ 21 ESS): Bilsky, W., Janik, M., & Schwartz, S. H. (2011). The structural organization of human values – Evidence from three rounds of the European Social Survey (ESS). Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 42, 759-776. doi:10.1177/0022022110362757

Portrait Values Questionnaire (PVQ 40): Cieciuch, J., & Schwartz, S. H. (2012). The number of distinct basic values and their structure assessed by PVQ-40. Journal of Personality Assessment, 94, 321-328. doi: 10.1080/00223891.2012.655817

Schwartz Values Best Worst Scale (SVBWS): Lee, J. A., Soutar, G., & Louviere, J. (2008). The best–worst scaling approach: an alternative to Schwartz’s values survey. Journal of personality assessment90(4), 335-347.

Portrait Values Questionnaire (PVQ-RR 57):  Schwartz, S. H., Cieciuch, J., Vecchione, M., Davidov, E., Fischer, R., Beierlein, C., … & Dirilen-Gumus, O. (2012). Refining the theory of basic individual values. Journal of personality and social psychology103(4), 663.

Best-worst values refined (BWVr): Lee, J. A., Sneddon, J. N., Daly, T. M., Schwartz, S. H., Soutar, G. N., & Louviere, J. J. (2017). Testing and Extending Schwartz Refined Value Theory Using a Best–Worst Scaling Approach. Assessment, 1073191116683799.

Method comparisons: Schwartz, S. H., & Cieciuch, J. (2016). Values. In D. Bartram, F. Cheung, K Geisinger, J. Hattie, D. Iliescu, & F. Leong (eds.), International Test Commision Handbook of Testing and Assessment, Ch. 8 (pp. 106-119). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

Selected Values Measurement designed for adolescents and children

Döring, A. K., Blauensteiner, A., Aryus, K., Drögekamp, L., & Bilsky, W. (2010). Assessing values at an early age: The picture-based value survey for children (PBVS–C). Journal of Personality Assessment92(5), 439-448.

Collins, P. R., Lee, J. A., Sneddon, J. N., & Döring, A. K. (2017). Examining the consistency and coherence of values in young children using a new Animated Values Instrument. Personality and Individual Differences104, 279-285.

Lee, J. A., Ye, S., Sneddon, J. N., Collins, P. R., & Daniel, E. (2017). Does the intra-individual structure of values exist in young children?. Personality and Individual Differences110, 125-130.

Cultural Values

Theory, measurement and patterns across countries and across groups of countries.

Selected Foundation papers

Schwartz, S.H. (1999). Cultural value differences: Some implications for work. Applied Psychology: An International Review, 48, 23-47

Schwartz, S. H. (2006). A theory of cultural value orientations: Explication and applications. Comparative Sociology, 5, 137-182.

Licht, A. N., Goldschmidt, C., & Schwartz, S. H. (2007). Culture rules: The foundations of the rule of law and other norms of governance. Journal of Comparative Economics, 35, 659-688.

Schwartz, S. H. (2014). National culture as value orientations: Consequences of value differences and cultural distance. In V. Ginsburgh & D. Throsby (Eds.), Handbook of the Economics of Art and Culture, Vol.2 (pp. 547-586). Elsevier/North Holland.

Values reflect what is important in life.
They give meaning to the things we do. What we believe, what we like, what we do, and what we think about our own and other’s actions are all shaped by our values.

The Centre for Human and Cultural Values focuses on research and training in understanding and appreciation of the variety of human and cultural values and how they relate to big social issues in society.